You Will Be Absolutely Amazed To Know How A Jet Engine Works

You will be absolutely amazed to know how a jet engine works

Did you know already?

Jet engines are often only identified with aircraft, but the world land speed record has also been set by a jet-powered car.

Jet power was known to man a long time ago, but little could be achieved with the technological advances-or rather the lack of such-that time. A jet-powered toy called aeolipile, dating from the 1st century AD, was found in Greece, but it served no practical purpose. The radiant power was perceived only after the Chinese invention of the gunpowder and later rockets. The radiance in these instruments was very rough and was not very efficient.

As the man conquered the hurdle of the flight, the propeller plane became the order of the day. But soon the airplanes realized that the propellers could never exceed the sound insulation and thus would remain inherently slow. This led to the crying for alternative drive methods.

The first practical jet engines, also called gas turbine engines, were built in Great Britain and Germany in the 20th century. Frank Whittle and Hans von Ohain are often credited as the inventors of the jet engine. Both had engineered similar engines in 1937 and did not know anything about the work of the other, but Ohain was the first to actually drive an airplane – the Heinkel He 178. Jet engines really came into their own after World War II, which by the way of The Tussle was coined between the propeller-powered Messerschmitts and Spitfires in the Battle of Great Britain. In the 1960s most commercial aircraft had jet engines installed on their fleets. Various types of jet engines are now also used to supply spacecraft and ballistic missiles.

How does Jet Engines work?

Jet engines work according to Newton’s third law of motion: each action has the same and opposite reaction. This principle is used in jet engines to generate thrust from the jet drive. They are moved forward (reaction) by the backward flow of the trigger jet (action).

Basic design of a jet engine

Functionally, the internal composition of the jet engines is very similar to the 4-stroke engine of your car. Jet engines also perform the 4 strokes of ingestion, compression, combustion and exhaust, but in different sections of the engine. Referring to the figure, the intake is responsible for continuously sucking fresh air. The compressor, located in a narrower section of the engine, compresses the air and makes it more dense and warmer. In the combustion chamber, the compressed air is supplied with fuel and the fuel-air mixture is ignited. The resulting explosion of hot and extremely dense gases is then forced out of the propulsion nozzle, which is the most important component of a jet engine. The driving nozzle is responsible for concentrating and directing the exhaust gases into a linear, powerful beam.

These hot, fast exhaust gases are used to rotate a set of turbines. These turbines are connected to the compressor by a shaft so that fresh air can be sucked in.

Turbojet engines, as shown in the figure above, do not have a separate fan at the front and use the entire available air for combustion. Turbofan engines, on the other hand, have a distinct fan at the top of the assembly.

Turbofan engine

The fan accelerates the air into the compressor. This increases the amount of air available for combustion and makes turbo engines more economical. Turbofan engines also include ducts to bypass some air to bypass the engine core. This allows the turbofan engine to directly use the thrust generated by the fan directly to the drive.

Most modern turbomotors use a combination of the thrust generated by the engine and the thrust generated by the fan itself. A higher preference for jet thrust makes the aircraft faster. This is used in military jet aircraft. On the other hand, a higher preference for fan thrust makes the aircraft a better cruiser and more economical. This is used in commercial passenger aircraft.

► Ramjets and scramjets are specialized forms of the turbojet engine. They have no fan at the front or a central shaft that uses the exhaust gases to drive the fan. They simply have an inlet compressor, combustion chamber and nozzle. Ramjets can not be used from a standstill, since they have no mechanism for kickstarting the process, and are practically efficient only at the ultrasonic velocities. They are engaged in rockets. Scramjets or supersonic combustion ramps, a derivative of the ramjet, are still under investigation by avionics and space research institutes, as a possible supersonic mode of travel.

► Rockets use the jet engine in a slightly different way than turbo jets, turbofans and ramraets, while the above-mentioned jet engines have sucked in the air and used them in combustion, rockets carry all the propellants in their storage and do not suck into fresh air. The engines that suck in the air are called air-breathing jet engines. While missiles, unlike other low-cost jet engines, appear to be inefficient, they become extremely efficient when cruising higher than Mach 5.

► Jet engines achieve various types of reciprocating engines, such as are used in propeller-driven aircraft. For a start, the jet drive allows much faster speeds than propellers. Jet engines are also incredibly efficient when it comes to their performance, ie the ratio of the power generated by a motor to its weight. Reciprocating piston engines that produce comparable performance would have to be much more massive.

Jet power is considered by many to be the greatest innovation in flight since powered flight, and it is not difficult to see why.

Writing An Executive Summary For An Online Business Sale

Writing an executive summary for an online business sale

When you sell your business through an online business, and a potential buyer answers to one of your online ads, you will need an effective executive summary that presents the business in an informative and concise format.

There are several areas of the company that need to be addressed in order to develop interest and provide the prospective buyer with sufficient information to determine whether it is appropriate for them.

A business executive summary should not exceed 5-7 pages. Short paragraphs, bullet points, simple tables and graphs and images are most effective and busy than a long novel about your business.

The areas to which the summary refers are as follows:

Business History – Let the buyer know what year the company was started. Where was the original location? Has the business been relocated? Are you the original owner of the company or did you buy it from someone else? How many people have worked in the company? What was the growth pattern of the company? This kind of summarization point gives a prospect a quick overview of how the company began and where it stands today.

Business Location – Enter the address of the company and attributes about the location. Is it a high traffic situation? Is there a good street view? Is visibility necessary? What is the square meter of the building? How is the customer? Is it a stand-alone location or is it in a strip shopping center. Own or rent the location? How much does the monthly rent? Including a small card the physical location is beneficial. Also, images that are included at the end of the summary are very helpful.

Business Products / Services – Provide a brief summary of what your company provides. Provide a breakdown of the main products / services that the company provides and what percentage of annual sales, product or service. An example of a restaurant would be:

Dine-In Food sales 58%

Food sales up 11%

Catering Food sales 10%

Alcohol sales 18%

Gift Certificate 3%

TOTAL 100%

Current business – Is the business exclusively owned or is there a partner or several partners?

License requirements – does the company need special licensing? Examples would be a liqueur license or a contractor’s license.

Customer mix – For companies with recurring customer sales, prepare a chart showing your customer mix. Because of the concern to reveal the names of your customers, it is acceptable to label them as customer A – 15%, customer B – 12%, customer C – 8%, etc. A buyer wants to see that you have several customers and that is not. A particular customer makes more than 25% of your business.

If your business is the kind where it is not practical to have a customer chart like a landscaping business with 100+ customers, then maybe a statement that 60% of your clients are residential, 30% are commercial and 10% Are institutional. Really, you just have to give something that gives a buyer a good idea of ​​what customers the company has and how much sales volume they take into account in the business.

Personnel profiles and longevity – Good employees with a long term of office with the business are an asset and must be presented to the buyer. Again as above, you do not want to give certain employee names, but you can add titles like Manager, Assistant Manager, Office Manager and so and then enter the length of the service. If you have 40 production workers, list them as a group and give a general range of employment time with the company.

Leasing and Contracts – List of all leases or contract obligations that you expect a buyer to take over from you when you sell the business. In addition to the rental agreement for the business location, you must not forget any equipment leases, advertising contracts or future employee agreements.

Financial results – For the summary, a brief financial summary using the current year to date financial information and the last three years of year end financial information are prepared. At a minimum, this summary should include the gross annual turnover, the cost of the goods, the total operating expenses and the profit for the business. The summary is not the place for full financial disclosure. Buyers want to see the trends in sales, operating and operating costs on a yearly basis.

Asset Value – Enter a dollar value of the fair market asset value of the furniture, fixtures, equipment and inventory at costs that are going to transfer with the business. This is also not the place for a complete listing of the company’s assets, but only a general statement to disclose the value of the assets that are included in the sale.

Competition Analysis – Provide a brief analysis of where your business is, how many direct competitors you have, and what your competitive advantage might be.

Training and Transition – Provide an indication of a buyer as you will help with the conversion of new owners into the business. How long will you stay after the sale to help the new owner? Will you introduce them to important customers and suppliers? Will you have necessary licenses for the operation of the company for a new owner?

Images – At the end of your summary are some pictures of your company. Show the street view and some interior images of the company. Images of larger devices, your product, your menu, your fleet of vehicles will also add the summary.

An effective executive summary must cover a lot of important areas about your business. As mentioned above, short paragraphs, bullet points and tables and graphs are the most effective method for presenting a lot of information about your business in a format that is easy and interesting to check for a buyer. You have future opportunities to engage the buyer in conversation where you can provide more details about the business and its operations.

Why Do Ashtrays In These 39 Unique Facts Airplanes Provide Airplanes

Why do ashtrays in these 39 Unique Facts Airplanes provide airplanes

Airbus A380-800 is a large two-level, with four engines and is capable of 850 passengers. Looks to land Airbus A380-800 the preparation at the Farnborough Airshow in Hampshire, England, (2014.07.14). (AFP PHOTO / Carl Court)

Eleven years later, on 25 February 1914 Sikorsky Ilja Muromez does a test flight 16 passengers carry. Meanwhile, Elliot Air Service history records as the first commercial airline.

Today millions and even billions of aircraft passengers use the services every year. Traveling by plane is no longer special.

However, there are a number of interesting facts about the aircraft, which is not widely known. Here are 39 of them, as quoted in the Daily Mail, Saturday (2017.04.01).

The secret staircase airplane

1. Range wing (wingspan) Boeing 747 is 195 meters or 59.4 meters longer than the distance Wright Bersaudara in the first flight of 120 feet.

2. The longest manned flights (with refueling) lasted for 65 days in 1968, a Cessna 172 to promote a hotel in Nevada. The record still holds.

3. P-51 Mustang, the best fighter jet of the United States in the Second World War, were designed from the outset and within four months or 117 days.

4. As a result of heating supesonics at a speed of Mach 2 Concorde, the hull widened 6 to 10 inches on each flight.

5. There are more astronauts owned by US as a Concorde pilot.

6. The span is longer than the Airbus A380 aircraft itself.

Along the span of 80 meters, while the length of 72.7 meters of the iron bird.
Has a size larger than the largest passenger aircraft in the world today, the Airbus A380, which is only 79.8 meters.
7. The average age of aircraft used on domestic flights in the United States is 11 years. Not infrequently, the aircraft is still used, despite its age has reached 30 years.

8. Some airlines will charge you for two seats to charge the body is not enough passenger a seat with the armrest lowered.

9. Most of the Boeing 777 and 787 had a secret staircase leading into the sleeping area of ​​the crew.

10. Every baby born in the airspace of the United States has automatically been US citizens.

11. The possibility of a person killed in a plane crash 1 in 4.7 million.

16. Passengers three-hour flight will drain 1.5 liters of water into the body.

21. The aircraft is designed to withstand lightning strikes.
22. The lights dimmed in the cabin is not to save money, but when the landing run badly and lights do not light up, the eyes of the passengers had used to the darkness.
23. Smoking is prohibited on the level. However, the rules require that every aircraft must be declared airworthy with an ashtray.

These do not have to fully trust the passengers. So they put ashtrays on the toilet as a precaution.
Therefore, the human heart can not make enough blood quickly to make the wings to the maximum flap.
For comparison, a sparrow can pump more than 450 times a minute.
30. British Airways predecessors began Imperial Airways Services in the best luxury
32. On 10 June 1965, the predecessor of British Airways, BEA, a commercial airline, where the passengers automatically pay for tickets for the first landing (landing).

33rd flights fastest transatlantic Concorde occurred on 7 February 1966, from JFK airport in New York to Heathrow, London in only 2 hours, 52 minutes, 59 seconds.
The pilot could bring the supersonic aircraft up to 1,300 meters per second or 2080 km an hour.
36. Only five percent of the world’s population have been in an airplane.
37. Heinrich Kubis is the first flight attendant in Germany and the world. He became a flight attendant in 1912.
38. The plane flew alone, but to divide the sky with some flying wild animals. Bees can even be at an altitude of 18000 feet or 5486 meters.
Airplanes in Russia, the bees invaded. (East2West / Daily Mail)

Types Of US Military Aircraft

Types of US Military Aircraft

The United States (USF) forces have always been angered by their workers and armaments, and recent events (the wars in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Syria and Libya) have shown the military strength of the United States. As far as the Luftwaffe is concerned, the USAF has some 18,234 aircraft and 6,417 helicopters.

The US military engages a naming system and a special designation for all types of US military aircraft for identification. Below is the list of different types.

List of US Military Aircraft

You can click on each picture to get an enlarged view.

Sentry Orion Hornet Lancer Strike Eagle

Hercules Super Hornet

Black Hawk Stratotanker Talon Global Hawk

The above pictures are in the public domain, but are credited as works of the federal government.

A ✈ B ✈ E ✈ F ✈ G ✈ M ✈ O ✈ R ✈ S ✈ T ✈ U ✈ X

Airborne Early Warning and Control Aircraft
Hawkeye E-2, E2C, E2D They are patrol aircraft that recognize air threats and command battle during the war, similar to normal air traffic control. They are also known as Airborne Command and Control Aircraft. They also provide strategic support for the air and ground forces in combat. These aircraft (depending on their versions) are able to detect long-range missiles with the help of powerful radars and generally function as airborne monitoring systems. They also provide strategic support for the air and ground forces in combat.
Top ✈
Sentry E-3, E-3A, E-3C, E-3G
Mercury E-6, E-6A, E-6B

Air Anti-Undersea Warfare (ASW) aircraft
Orion P-3C The ASW type of aircraft not only detects underwater threats, but also responds to surface threats and is a kind of patrol aircraft. These aircraft use various modern techniques to detect the presence of enemy forces. For this purpose, often visual sensors (use of electro-optic devices) and military models of binoculars are used. Infrared sensors (or heat sensors), electromagnetic sensors (scanning radio and electronic transmissions), magnetic anomaly detection sensors (detection of changes in the earth’s magnetic field) and radar sensors (detection of snorkel or submarines) are some of the other commonly used ASW aircraft sensors.
Top ✈
Seahawk SH-60B, MH-60R, HH-60
Viking S-3, S-3B

attack aircraft
AV-8B Harrier II, Harrier II Plus These are the aircraft that are used to hit targets in an air-to-ground militia grip. They are used as close as possible to the ground forces for tight air support and / or cover. They are sometimes used to control enemy forces during the strategic war. One of the main applications of attack aircraft is Battlefield Air Interdiction, ie, the control of offshore enemy forces where no friendly forces exist. SEAD (oppression of enemy air defense) and OCA (offensive counter-attack) are two other important roles of attack aircraft.
Top ✈
FA-18 Hornet, F-18A, F-18C, F-18D
Thunderbolt II A-10

Bomber aircraft
Lancer B-1, B-1B bombers are known for their massive destructive abilities and have the ability to cause serious damage to the target. For this reason, bombers are used only in times of war and the decimation of the hostile causes during air raids. However, bombers are expensive to make and require regular maintenance. Also it is difficult to reach an exact location with bombers. In addition, bombers are very vulnerable to interceptors and cause indiscriminate carnage.
Top ✈
Spirit B-2, B-2A
Stratofortress B-52, B-52H

Electronic warfare aircraft
Commando Solo EC-130J Electronic warfare refers to the use of electromagnetic spectrum (directed energy) to control the spectrum and respond to hostile forces across the spectrum. The aircraft used in electronic warfare carry anti-radiation missiles and jammer transmitters to intercept and deactivate enemy radars. The technology used in these aircraft is able to paralyze the air defense mechanism and the communications depots of the enemy. The great advantage of using an electronic warplane is that it clears the way for direct attack on enemy camps by other defense personnel.
Top ✈
Gray Wolves EA-6B
Compass call EC-130H

fighter aircraft
Mirage F-1, 50, 2000, III, V More commonly known as combat aircraft, they are known for their speed and are used to have air superiority. This superiority can be defensive (if combat aircraft is used in defensive airborne attacks), or it can be offensive (when combat aircraft are used in offensive counterattacking). They are from a large base at ground-friendly forces engaged in a battle. This is why fighters aircraft usually accompany the surface army during the wars rather than in air attacks like the attack aircraft.
Top ✈
Chengdu F-7, J-7, J-10, J-20
Strike Eagle F-15E

Gunship Aircraft
AC-130H, AC-130U These are a deadly type of combat weapons with immeasurable firepower. They use weapons (25/44/105 mm), cannons and howitzers to shoot targets from the air on Earth. Gunships are efficient, with the ability of far-reaching attacks from higher heights. Unlike the fighter or attack planes, the cannon ships can often orbit the target before they go beyond it. The use of gun guns has recently increased due to the vital narrow air support that the gun guns are able to provide ground forces.
Top ✈
119g AC-AC-119, AC-119K
U-boat AC-130U + 4

Military transport aircraft
Grumman C-2, C-2A (R) Also known as Cargo Aircraft, the services of these aircraft are very important to the army. In wartime, they are used to deploy forces in certain areas along with their devices, to provide the previously stationed personnel with equipment and other necessities, to evacuate the parachute hunters, and to deliver strategic or operative airflows. Cargo aircraft are also used to supply supplies and support humanitarian missions, especially during or after natural catastrophes.
Top ✈
Starlifter C-141, C-141A, C-141B
Hercules C-130, C-130E, C-130H

Multi-role combat aircraft
Growler EA-18G These are the aircraft that perform combined functions of other types of military aircraft. Depending on the military operational needs, these aircraft can perform an enlightenment function or penetrate into air-to-air and / or air-to-surface combat. They can also be used to intercept enemy forces or jamming the enemy radar (ie, enter into electronic warfare), and some of these multi-function combat aircraft are capable of operating air bombs.
Top ✈
Super Hornet F / A-18E / F
Combat Shadow HC / MC-130P, HC-130N

observation aircraft
Falcon O-1, O-12, O-16 An observation aircraft is also referred to as a patrol or surveillance aircraft as it is used to check the air and surface activities of the target areas. The reason for this patrol could be the terms of a treaty, border / maritime patrol, or strategic requirements of the military. These types of aircraft are capable of flying for an extended period of time and are equipped with high-quality sensors. Because of the nature of their functions, observation aircraft are used at all times, but more extensively during the war.
Top ✈
Thunderbolt II OA-10A
Open Skies OC-135B

reconnaissance plane
Crazy Hawk RC-7B, EO-5B One step ahead of surveillance aircraft, reconnaissance or reconstruction aircraft is a high-tech intelligence collector. It is best known for providing SIGNIT (Signal Intelligence), COMINT (Communication Intelligence), and ELINT (Electronic Intelligence). It flies at very high altitudes and is able to send confidential data from target areas in the form of cryptic messages and / or snapshots. The role of this aircraft is greatly appreciated as it has the potential to strip the target of its secrets so that the military personnel can know their enemy in front of a real face to create effective strategies for a successful battle.
Top ✈
Dragonlady U / R-2, U-2E, U-2F, U-2H
Rivet joint RC-135V, RC-135W

Rotary Aircraft
Black Hawk UH-60, UH-60A, UH-60L Often known as a helicopter, the rotary wing aircraft is an integral part of the US Army. It is used for a variety of purposes (observation, utility, freight and transportation, combat, utility, reconnaissance, etc.). Some of the military helicopters act as multi-reel aircraft and are a great asset. The search and rescue operations of these helicopters, such as those of the famous Hercules HC-130, play a very important role in personnel recuperation.
Top ✈
Apache A-64, A-4A, at the 64th
Chinook CH-47, CH-47D, CH-47F

SAM aircraft
VC-137, VC-25A Special Air Mission or SAM aircraft are transport aircraft used by the presidents, the First Lady, vice president, members of the Cabinet and the Congress, important national leaders and high-ranking foreign dignitaries. Every SAM aircraft that bears the President is called Air Force One. These aircraft must comply with strict quality controls and flight logs. You can definitely provide airflows in the short term, especially in emergencies or wartime.
Top ✈
Standby C-5, C-17, C-130
Gulfstream C-20, C-37

tanker aircraft
Boeing KC-46, KC-767 tankers are the air jets for all airplanes in an ongoing military operation of the US Air Force, Navy and, if necessary, other friendly forces. They offer aircraft during the mission aircraft to the other types of aircraft. They are able to locate friendly airplanes and detect threats directed to them. They are used in operations that extend over a longer period of time or are on a far-reaching mission, and their services become all the more important in a global commitment.
Top ✈
Stratotanker KC-135Q, KC-135R (RT), KC-135Y
Extender KC-10, KC-10A

trainer aircraft
Jayhawk T-1, T-1A These are the aircraft that are used to give in-flight training for the army, air force, navy and naval officers. The training aircraft are equipped with additional safety features and improvements. Almost all military trainers have a seat capacity of two, especially for the training of new recruits. The training of flight crew takes place on three levels: basic, primary and advanced. The primary training is given in a standard T-37 trainer aircraft and the specialized trainer is used only at the advanced level.
Top ✈
Talon T-38, T-38A, T-38C
Cessna T-51, T-51A

Unmanned aircraft
Global Hawk RQ-4, RQ-4A, MC-4C, EQ-4B Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), also known as drones, are remote controlled vehicles. These aircraft have the ability to be in the air for about 20 hours at a time. The best feature of these vehicles is that they keep the pilot out of their hands while they are effectively performing their functions. They are used in reconnaissance, target detection, air communication (especially with friendly forces in an operation) and combat. Although they are very expensive, increased investment is made by the federal government in the procurement of more UAVs in recent times.
Top ✈
Predator RQ-1A, RQ-1B, MQ-1
Hunter RQ-5A, MQ-5B, MQ5C

X aircraft
Martin Marietta X-23A, X-24A, X-24B They are also referred to as experimental aircraft or development aircraft. As their name indicates, X-levels are those that are modified or re-produced on the basis of research. These experiments provide a space for the discovery, invention and improvement of military aircraft. Some of these experimental aircraft have proved to be deadly (like the X-2), but there are also many phenomenal and groundbreaking successes.
Top ✈
Boeing (USAF) X-20, X-32, X-45, X-51
Bell X-1, X-9, X-22

The list of military aircraft is exhaustive, but only with high-profile military aircraft is not enough to have superior global air power. As in any other field, new technology is regularly developed around the world to improve airflow, and so the existing military aircraft must either be updated or replaced from time to time. For this reason, the Ministry of Defense (DOD) is making special arrangements for tactical aircraft investments from the entire military budget.

When we assert our belief in God, the love of freedom and the superior global air power, the future [of the USA] looks good. ~ General Curtis LeMay

Things I Wish I Knew Before I Became A Pilot

Things I wish I knew before I became a pilot

Being a pilot is a very rewarding career as most pilots will tell you and as the old saying says If you love what you do, you will never work a day in your life.

However, a pilot is not all that rosy and for the uninformed, some of the victims that you are going to make might come as a big surprise and could even have stopped you from your training.

Some of the factors that no one could tell you is the fact that most pilots are paid very low wages until they work for a major airline or similar type operator. In order to get your career out of the way, you can also work in less desirable places or work very long days. In the industry it means to pay your fees and the price could be too expensive for some.

If you decide:

If you are still undecided, if you want to be a pilot, consider some of these factors:

The training is exceptionally expensive and it is not a one-time deal, during your career you will continually pay for things, from medical to expensive manuals and charts to ongoing workouts, STOP IT and cost everything money. In the early stages of your career, the amount you have paid and what you spend is just a fight to survive. So if you have a family to offer, get ready for a second job and some hard times.

Before you earn a moderate income consider the time it could take to get there. Training for a commercial pilot takes about 12-16 months on average and add, say, 6 months to find that very elusive first job. Your first job will be flying individual motor aircraft and you will do that for around 1000 hours which can last from 1.5 to 2 years. You are pushed to the next level, the twins, and you will fly them for another 500 hours.

You are now 4-5 years in you career and have 1500hrs which will qualify you for an airline transportation license. You land a job at a regional airline or turbo-prop operator as the first officer and after 18 months you update you to become a captain. They are now targeting a major airline, but most of them want a 1000-year jet time that can be very hard to get.

For 8 years, before you are the first officer to sit a jet, 8 years of hard work, a lot of effort and low pay.

I do not care that I want to be a pilot:

Great, good choice here are some tips that might help you save some time and money.

Forget big fancy flying schools (sausage factories they are called). Nobody cares where you have done your training and it will only cost more. Scheduling and availability is a problem with these larger outfits. If the weather is bad for your flights this week, they can not re-schedule you because there are too many other students. I think I could have shaved at least 4-6 months from my flight training when it was not for this factor.

Flying schools will assess you for an instrument that you will not use during your first few years as a pilot. A night rating carries much more weight in the first few years, costs much less and allows you to get plenty of nightly hours.

Once you finish all your flight training, finish all theory topics for your airline license. At this point, you are still in a study mode and environment, trust me, it is much more difficult once you work full-time a few years on the road.

I enjoy my life as a pilot, it is difficult and rewarding and I accepted the shortcomings of the work. If I knew what I know today, I would still meet the same career, but I do not go the same training route as I do.

I hope this could help future pilots in their decisions.

Safe heaven

The Incredible Science Behind How A Helicopter Flies

The incredible science behind how a helicopter flies

Did you know already?

Despite the apparent ease, hovering is one of the most difficult maneuvers in helicopters.

Helicopters are powered by rotating blades as rotors. This distinguishes them from fixed aircraft, such as jet engines or ultralights.

All aircraft are destroyed by the same principle. When the front tip of a wing is lifted, it forces the air that flies over it to flow faster than the air below. This means that at any moment there is less air above the wing than under it. This imbalance causes lift, and literally sucks the plane up. A flying airplane flies because of the lift generated by air flying over its wings. This requires moving air (as in the case of gliders) or some form of propulsion.

In contrast, Rotary wing aircraft produce their own thrust by moving their wings against the air. The rotors of a helicopter actually perform the same function as the wings of an aircraft, except that the wings of an aircraft need to thrust to produce a forward motion. Sailplanes that have no engine must drop their height to get forward (which they reach by lowering their nose). A helicopter engine, on the other hand, supplies the rotors and does not provide any thrust directly; The tiny thrust produced by the exhaust from the engine is negligible in the larger scheme.

The ability to create your own lift gives the helicopter obvious advantages over fixed aircraft. Helicopters can stand out and be represented (although an exclusive class of aircraft can do that), are able to hover in the air, and are much more maneuverable when space is on a premium.

But this also makes the control helicopter much more difficult to control than aircraft. The basic shape of the aircraft allows them to glide passively forward for a considerable distance, even if the pilot and propulsion stops. However, the flexible, active nature of the helicopter means that it is not designed to slip. It must always be kept in the air without any help from the laws of physics. Pilots must always insert the helicopter’s input, even if it is floating. The rotating mechanism also limits the top speed of a helicopter and makes them inherently slower than fixed aircraft.

So how exactly do helicopters fly, and more importantly, how to control helicopters?

Helicopters are controlled by a combination of three controls:

Working a helicopter


This controls the angle of attack (AOA) of all rotor blades – the name. The AOA is the angle formed by the raised or lowered blade against the imaginary plane of its base.

When the angle of attack is increased, the air flowing over the top of the blades must flow faster and trigger the lift. Likewise, the angle of attack must be reduced to land a helicopter.

The collective is to the left of the pilot, at the base of his seat. It is often accompanied by a motor-wheel-like spin handle throttle which is rotated sideways to increase or decrease the angle.

As the angle of incidence increases, the air resistance of the rotors also increases. To counteract this, the engine speed must be increased to maintain a constant rotor speed. Thus, the throttle is paired with either the selector lever, or a component known as the governor, is incorporated into the chopper. The controller automatically changes the engine speed when the angle of attack is changed and keeps the rotor speed constant.


The cyclic control of the direction of the helicopter. It is called the cyclic control because it cyclically changes the angle of each sheet. Instead of raising a single blade, the cyclic system changes the elevations of certain points in the rotating portion of the swashplate. This in effect causes the rotor disk (the rotating portion of the wobble plate) to tilt in a certain direction.

This produces the same aerodynamic effect as the lifting, only with the added element of a lateral direction. This drives the copier in this direction.

The cyclic control is often found in the form of a joystick, either in front of the driver’s seat or between the pilot and the copilot. Like any other joystick, the direction of the joystick corresponds with its effect, ie when the cyclic control is shifted to the left, the rotor disc tilts to the left and the chopper moves to the left.

Anti-torque pedals

According to Newton’s third law of motion, each action has an equal and opposite reaction – the rotation of the main rotor causes the rest of the helicopter to rotate in the opposite direction. This is called a torque reaction. The rear rotor on helicopter counts this effect and keeps the chopper in a straight line. The rear rotor can be used as a rudder.

Two anti-torque pedals, located on the pilot’s feet, control the pitch of the rear rotor disc. When the right pedal is pressed, the rear rotor disc is turned to the right, and the nose of the helicopter will turn to the right and vice versa. This is just as the main rotor lifts, only sideways. These pedals are used to induce yawing and to turn the helicopter. When used during hovering, the anti-torque pedals allow a helicopter to rotate 360 ​​°.


This is what helicopters defined better than anything else. Keeping a helicopter stationary in the air can look easy, but in reality it is one of the most difficult things that a pilot has to do.

To hover, a pilot must first stop any directional movement by bringing the cyclic control to the center. Then, he must stabilize the collective lever at the required height and make the necessary adjustments to the yaw pedals to maintain the exact position with respect to all three axes.

Helicopters are used to expose forest fires, rescue work and, of course, in the armed forces. They are crucial civilian and military equipment around the world, and with their extremely useful attributes, this is hardly a surprise.

The History Of Aircraft Carriers Is Sure To Impress You

The history of aircraft carriers is sure to impress you

Aircraft carriers are mobile naval airbases on the sea which allow the launch and landing of military aircraft on their flat decks. The aircraft is stored underneath the deck and is grown or torn off with the help of elevators. Their landings are made safe with the help of cables and advanced techniques such as mirroring systems. These ships are accompanied by various support ships such as destroyers and carry rockets and modern war weapons. They offer air cover to other war ships and can operate freely in international waters. They are, therefore, very decisive and deadly warships operated by the naval forces of various countries around the world.

Early history

Aircraft carriers actually developed from the balloon ships of the early 19th century, when the British Royal Navy launched kites from HMS Pallas. They were mainly used to drop propaganda flares and proclamations against Napoleon Bonaparte. During the First World War the British, French, German, Italian, Russian and Swedish fleets launched hot air balloons for observation purposes. In March 1910, the French ship Le Canard was the first to develop aircraft ships. However, the French ship La Foudre is known as the first seaplane carrier. In 1913, a British merchant ship was transformed into a seaplane carrier for experimental experiments. The ship was HMS Hermes. It was converted back into a cruiser, and later back to a watercraft before it was sunk by a German submarine in October 1914. In 1913 the USS Mississippi became the first watercraft carrier for the US Navy.

During this time several fleets launched their seaplanes to collect information. They were launched by a catapult and collected with the crane from the water after landing. The actual changes that were necessary to launch such ships were able to launch aircraft launch and landing, came around the early 1920s.

During the First World War

The imperial Japanese navy conducted the first strike of a carrier during the First World War. It also had the distinction of being the first strike from a vehicle against a land target. HMS Ark Royal was the first modern aircraft carrier because it had a launch platform. A squadron commander from the British Royal Navy became the first man to land on a moving ship, HMS Angry. Many other operations were carried out during the First World War, but the Second World War was the turning point in their progress, which was a great improvement.

During the Second World War

During the Second World War the British Royal Navy had seven aircraft carriers and had an upper hand over Germany and Italy, which had none. But their weakness was shown when German battle cruisers HMS sunk gloriously. This weakness, however, was overshadowed by the HMS Illustrious, when she successfully launched a far-reaching strike on the Italian fleet at Taranto. The use of aircraft carriers by the British prevented the Italian navy and German airplanes from dominating the Mediterranean. Japan had 10 of them in their fleet when they attacked the United States in Pearl Harbor in 1942, which was a clear indication of their naval capabilities. Their supremacy, however, diminished as a US carrier-born plane sank the Japanese battleship Musashi in 1945.

postwar developments

As technology advanced, jet-powered aircraft came into the picture, which had higher speed and weight, requires a much greater effort in helping them to land safely. If they do not land properly, it would often cause a lot of damage to the vehicle and parked aircraft. Thus, some innovations such as angled deck, optical landing, etc. were developed.
A British invention, the angled deck helps the aircraft land and launch on a carrier. This is useful because when landing, the pilot must only drive the engine to the maximum to get back into the air. In this way, serious accidents are avoided. Angled decks were first tested on HMS Triumph.
Another British invention, the optical landing system, is a gyroscopically controlled hollow mirror on the port side of the deck. In this system, a bright orange light directed at the mirror creates an orange ball on it and is seen by the plane. This position of the ball indicates the sliding path. The glide path can be controlled by the ball.
The US Navy built the first Forrestal type, nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, the USS Enterprise. Nuclear-powered vehicles increased the endurance of the war ships, which could now stay longer on the sea.

Countries like China, India and Spain are building their own, which would soon be finished. At present, the US Navy has the highest number of aircraft carriers in service and is thus the most feared naval in the world. More recently, they have demonstrated their bravery when the USS Enterprise was sent to the Persian Gulf to dismantle the terrorist camps in Afghanistan.

The Amazing Events That Led To The Invention Of The Aircraft

The amazing events that led to the invention of the aircraft

The invention of the aircraft changed the way we travel and also travel very comfortably. Airplanes have given us the opportunity to explore different parts of the world. In the face of emergency situations such as flooding, it became easier. Airplanes are also an important part of the defense services. The aircraft we see today can be classified into two types: aircraft and rotary winds. In the 18th century hot air balloons were developed for the flight. In 1783 the Montgolfier brothers built a hot air balloon for the first time. The lack of thrust needed to supply the aircraft and the lack of navigation tools were the main problems associated with hot air balloons. However, this did not stop people from working in the field of aircraft development, and finally, the plane was invented.

Who invented the airplane?

The Wright brothers from the USA invented the first aircraft. Wilbur and Orville, the Wright brothers were born on April 16, 1867 and on August 19, 1871. They have not continued their education after high school and instead decided to open a bicycle repair shop. They have investigated the experiments and investigations in the field of aircraft development. Their interest and passion for airplanes led to the development of the first heavier aircraft.

First plane to fly

The Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orville, began in 1899 with the idea of ​​building airplanes. On 17 December 1903 finally succeeded to fly the first airplane. It was a historic day when many attempts to make an airplane had earlier met with failure.


The period between 1799 and 1809 was important from the point of view of aircraft development. The basic concepts of aerodynamics were laid by Sir George Cayley, an English baronet. He introduced the idea of ​​oblique planes that were supposed to have rigid wings (for lift) and a separate drive mechanism (for thrust). The basic idea of ​​developing these aircraft was to create a flat surface to create the necessary lift to fly.


The work of Otto Lilienthal, a German aviation engineer, proved to be an inspiration for the Wright Brothers. The sailplanes built by Lilienthal completed many successful flights. However, they lacked a control system fuel-power system. During these flights, Lilienthal had to swing his upper body to guide the glider in a certain direction. Lilienthal died in 1896 in a glider crash. Wright Brothers took the study of flight and aircraft seriously after this tragic incident.

Hiram Stevens’s Maxim’s Flying Machine

The Hiram Maxim built aircraft had a span of 34 m and a total length of 44 m. Two combined 360 hp steam engines were used to supply this engine. With all the bulky parts that were integrated into the design, this flying machine weighed about 3.5 tonnes. The tests performed on this machine showed that it was aerodynamically unstable and could not be properly controlled. This led Maxim to abandon his attempts to make the flying machine.

First aircraft invented

Wilbur and Orville Wright were trying to cross the boundaries of Mr. Lilienthal’s kite pilots. They also used the concept of inclined aircraft in their first aircraft. They fitted the aircraft with a 12 hp gasoline engine and two propellers. The aircraft they had developed was a double decker with two main wings positioned one above the other. The two wings helped provide a greater boost to the aircraft. Finally, on December 17, 1903, the first flight of her plane took place at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina in the USA; It took 59 seconds. It reached an altitude of 120 feet, the plane covered a distance of 852 feet. On this day, four flights were awarded. Of these four, the above flight was the best. Kitty Hawk was chosen for the flight because of the windy weather and sandhills – which would have been a pillow in the event of a crash.

The Wings Warping method was used by Wright Brothers in their first flight. In the wing-warping technique, the wing tips are slightly arched. It facilitates the rolling movement of aircraft and also helps to keep the balance. The aircraft developed by Wright Brothers had a three-axis control. It turned on three different axes and in three movements as follows.

Pitch: This movement of the aircraft helps to raise and lower the nose.
Role: The rotation takes place on the longest axis of the plane in this movement.
Yaw: In this movement of the aircraft, the horizontal axis is rotated.

The rudder at the rear of the aircraft served the purpose of navigation. Today’s modern aircraft also follow these foundations set by the Wright brothers.

aircraft history

In the 19th century an important work took place in the area of ​​aircraft development. However, there was much interest in the airplanes of Leonardo da Vinci. Before the fundamentals of aerodynamics were discovered, aircraft enthusiasts followed the Ornithopter tradition. An ornithopter is a machine that uses the wing mechanism of the wings of the birds. It only works in the development of small flying machines. However, the lifting and driving of a larger aircraft is not possible with this technique. Although the aircraft was invented in 1903, it was only popular after the government of America used it for the air mail service. Subsequently, aircraft gained popularity and were used for many different purposes.

Today’s aircraft are technologically advanced and have a sophisticated design. The recently launched ‘Airbus 380’ is the largest passenger aircraft. It has the capacity to carry 853 passengers and drive at a speed of 900 km / h. The Antonov An-225 Mriya is the heaviest aircraft in the world. From the invention of the airplane in 1903 to the development of space ships of today, the air transport sector has changed to a sea. The credit goes, of course, to the outsiders, the Wright brothers. This incredible journey of aircraft development pays a tribute to the great Confucius, who rightly said: A journey of a thousand miles, begins with a single step.

Is Air Force Basic Military Training Hard I Will Let You Know The Hardest Part

Is Air Force Basic Military Training Hard I will let you know the hardest part

Well, Air Force basic military training has definitely been developed over the past decade to focus on field training and warrior ethos that has never really been enforced until now but hard close.

Trainees just as six years ago spent only 6 weeks at the Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, which kept the attention to detail and dormitory life without a real militant training, but that has changed …

Since September 11, 2001, and almost a decade of struggle against two wars, the basic military training has formed into a completely new animal (all wordplay intended, I will go in this more in a minute). Air Force’s basic military training has added a new week to their training called the BEAST Week (Basic Expedition Airmen Abilities Training).

They will be through a pre-deployment period of training, the week is zero to the fifth week, and then through actual deployment and reconstruction training that will take you to the conclusion where the beast week starts this cycle in the sixth week.

During this preparatory stage, you will learn how to march, salute, respect details, cultivate the military camp and become one as a flight with your friends. Many people ask me what the great thing is to learn how to fold your underwear and maintain a perfect clothes drawer has something to do with the actual military and it did not really make sense to me until I went into operation.

I tell them that by learning to pay attention to tiny details like this for 8 ½ weeks is something that will stick with you forever, and that there are jobs like airplane technicians who hold that attention to detail or life Risk.

If as much as a screw is forgotten on an airplane engine, you can bet that there is a good chance that this can have a dramatic effect on the mission, which allows the engine to encounter more complications and even break , While in flight life endangers.

Everything that is learned in basic education is for a purpose no matter how stupid it seems at the time and you will learn to appreciate these things when you are ready to run (especially if you fly a master for example Day with your life in The hands of the people who care for your plane).

MTI’s today are now seasoned warriors, with experience from several deployments some even receive bronze, and even purple heart medals.

This is no longer the chair forces people and for about 6 years the Air Force has gone a long way to reach it to be more consistent with other branches.

Regardless of your primary AFSC (job) new and often common roles such as providing as a personal tech. You can easily get into a convoy through Afghanistan alongside soldiers and marines outside the wire, which makes it necessary for all aviators to adopt this kind of warrior mindset.

Is Air Force basic military training hard then or not? The hard part in my own experiences was as follows …

# 1 – The gas chambers.

Each chamber holds about 20 people who ask you to trust your gas mask and your chemical suit in which you have been dressed. You will tear up in these chambers on large orange prints along the walls of the chamber side by side with the instructors in the middle. The gas released and you said you’re doing a couple of jumping jacks (presumably you’re huffing and poofing for air for what’s next) …

Two at a time are then instructed to remove your mask in the middle and said to enter deeply and give a report. LOL I could barely breathe, but I got as fast as possible When you go to the door, they’ll stop you, and that’s actually happened with the Jack a ** before me, just lengthening my time in what made me pretty angry has made.

In any case, once the mask from the burning starts immediately on the skin and in the lungs, your nose starts to run and you can barely see it, but you must go quietly to leave the chamber. After about two minutes of returning to the fresh air, even though you get back to normal and enjoy your MRE so it really is not that bad after it’s about somehow.

I will not go into much detail on the Beast Week in this article, but to summarize the question: Is Air Force Basic Military Training Hard? I will say that sometimes it is difficult, but everyone With the courage to join the first place has the will power to reach it.

Are you thinking of joining, or do you have some questions that you would like to personally address? Leave me a comment and I will answer them as soon as possible because I graduated from BMT in May 2011, so it’s still pretty fresh in my head. God bless.

Infringement Rights Are Not Based On The Use Of The Patent

Infringement rights are not based on the use of the patent

Many inventors and small companies own patents which they do not use or license. The common terminology, when a patent owner uses a patent to produce a product or service, is to practice the patent. A patent holder who does not practice the patent is known in the legal system as an NPE or non-practicing entity. On the other hand, the patent holder who carries out a patent that it owns is known as a market participant.
Patent licensing: Many inventors and universities, and a few companies, own patents that they do not practice. Instead, they allow technology for companies that use the patents to produce products or services. Many universities produce a return to their research investments by licensing the patents that result from the research that they carry out. Many of today’s and most popular drugs have got their start in university laboratories and research facilities. Thomas Edison was primarily a licensor of patents. He was in the invention business, not the business of invention and then with this invention to produce a product or service. Despite his genius, Edison recognized that he was neither an entrepreneur nor an industrialist, so he focused on what he did best. to invent. Edison owned over 1,000 patents, and many of them were licensed to companies to produce products and services. In fact, Edison had a patent for a timer, and the company that licensed the Edison patent became IBM.
Patent holder’s rights: A patent does not grant the patent holder the right to practice the patented invention. What gives a patent in reality and under the law gives the patent holder the right to prevent someone else from using it. Whether the patent holder practices the patent, the patent is not practiced, the patent is licensed or the patent is not licensed, the patent owner reserves the right to prevent someone else from using the patent! There is not, as many believe, any use-it-or-lose-it principle. A patent owner does not have to exercise a patent in order to retain the property or the rights it creates for the patent owner!
Patent Enforcement: The US Patent and Trademark Office grants patents; They do not force them. There is no patent office. If a patent is infringed (without the permission of the patent holder), it is the responsibility of the patent holder to prosecute the infringer through civil proceedings. That is, take the patent infringer to court!
Injunctive relief: There is, however, a difference in the legal position of a patent holder who practices his or her patent and the NPE or the non-practicing patent owner. If the patent proprietor asserts a patent infringement and if the patent owner also exercises this patent, a form or relief for the practicing patent owner is required to bring the court to an injunction. That is, ask a court to order an interim injunction to order the infringing party to discontinue the production and sale of the product or service using the infringed patent. If the product is produced outside the USA, the court may issue an order prohibiting its import into the USA. The NPE, but the patent owner who does not practice her or her patent, does not have this option.
Claims for damages: Both patent proprietors exercising the patented invention and patent proprietors who do not practice the patented invention have the same right to sue the infringer for damages. However, there is a small difference. While both parties are equal in terms of what they own, and what their rights are, the patent holder practicing his patent may gain a greater distinction in a patent infringement suit than the non-practicing patent owner. The non-practicing patent owner can receive damages in the form of andldquo, appropriate royaltyandrdquo; On sale of infringing products or services. The practicing patent owner can instead seek lost profits that are generally larger than an appropriate license fee.
Patent rights: So there is no use-it-or-lose-it factor to patent ownership. Unlike the right to obtain injunctive relief, patent proprietors practicing their patents, patent holders who license their patents, and patent proprietors who neither practice nor allow their patents, all have the right to prohibit others from using their patents without their permission Have the right to sue the offending party for damages. Authorization to use a patent is usually in the form of a license agreement.