You will be absolutely amazed to know how a jet engine works
Did you know already?
Jet engines are often only identified with aircraft, but the world land speed record has also been set by a jet-powered car.
Jet power was known to man a long time ago, but little could be achieved with the technological advances-or rather the lack of such-that time. A jet-powered toy called aeolipile, dating from the 1st century AD, was found in Greece, but it served no practical purpose. The radiant power was perceived only after the Chinese invention of the gunpowder and later rockets. The radiance in these instruments was very rough and was not very efficient.
As the man conquered the hurdle of the flight, the propeller plane became the order of the day. But soon the airplanes realized that the propellers could never exceed the sound insulation and thus would remain inherently slow. This led to the crying for alternative drive methods.
The first practical jet engines, also called gas turbine engines, were built in Great Britain and Germany in the 20th century. Frank Whittle and Hans von Ohain are often credited as the inventors of the jet engine. Both had engineered similar engines in 1937 and did not know anything about the work of the other, but Ohain was the first to actually drive an airplane – the Heinkel He 178. Jet engines really came into their own after World War II, which by the way of The Tussle was coined between the propeller-powered Messerschmitts and Spitfires in the Battle of Great Britain. In the 1960s most commercial aircraft had jet engines installed on their fleets. Various types of jet engines are now also used to supply spacecraft and ballistic missiles.
How does Jet Engines work?
Jet engines work according to Newton’s third law of motion: each action has the same and opposite reaction. This principle is used in jet engines to generate thrust from the jet drive. They are moved forward (reaction) by the backward flow of the trigger jet (action).
Basic design of a jet engine
Functionally, the internal composition of the jet engines is very similar to the 4-stroke engine of your car. Jet engines also perform the 4 strokes of ingestion, compression, combustion and exhaust, but in different sections of the engine. Referring to the figure, the intake is responsible for continuously sucking fresh air. The compressor, located in a narrower section of the engine, compresses the air and makes it more dense and warmer. In the combustion chamber, the compressed air is supplied with fuel and the fuel-air mixture is ignited. The resulting explosion of hot and extremely dense gases is then forced out of the propulsion nozzle, which is the most important component of a jet engine. The driving nozzle is responsible for concentrating and directing the exhaust gases into a linear, powerful beam.
These hot, fast exhaust gases are used to rotate a set of turbines. These turbines are connected to the compressor by a shaft so that fresh air can be sucked in.
Turbojet engines, as shown in the figure above, do not have a separate fan at the front and use the entire available air for combustion. Turbofan engines, on the other hand, have a distinct fan at the top of the assembly.
The fan accelerates the air into the compressor. This increases the amount of air available for combustion and makes turbo engines more economical. Turbofan engines also include ducts to bypass some air to bypass the engine core. This allows the turbofan engine to directly use the thrust generated by the fan directly to the drive.
Most modern turbomotors use a combination of the thrust generated by the engine and the thrust generated by the fan itself. A higher preference for jet thrust makes the aircraft faster. This is used in military jet aircraft. On the other hand, a higher preference for fan thrust makes the aircraft a better cruiser and more economical. This is used in commercial passenger aircraft.
► Ramjets and scramjets are specialized forms of the turbojet engine. They have no fan at the front or a central shaft that uses the exhaust gases to drive the fan. They simply have an inlet compressor, combustion chamber and nozzle. Ramjets can not be used from a standstill, since they have no mechanism for kickstarting the process, and are practically efficient only at the ultrasonic velocities. They are engaged in rockets. Scramjets or supersonic combustion ramps, a derivative of the ramjet, are still under investigation by avionics and space research institutes, as a possible supersonic mode of travel.
► Rockets use the jet engine in a slightly different way than turbo jets, turbofans and ramraets, while the above-mentioned jet engines have sucked in the air and used them in combustion, rockets carry all the propellants in their storage and do not suck into fresh air. The engines that suck in the air are called air-breathing jet engines. While missiles, unlike other low-cost jet engines, appear to be inefficient, they become extremely efficient when cruising higher than Mach 5.
► Jet engines achieve various types of reciprocating engines, such as are used in propeller-driven aircraft. For a start, the jet drive allows much faster speeds than propellers. Jet engines are also incredibly efficient when it comes to their performance, ie the ratio of the power generated by a motor to its weight. Reciprocating piston engines that produce comparable performance would have to be much more massive.
Jet power is considered by many to be the greatest innovation in flight since powered flight, and it is not difficult to see why.